Kai Shmushko is a Ph.D Candidate and researcher in Tel Aviv University, in the School of Historical Studies, East Asia Field, and Adjunct Lecturer in Rogovim program of the Humanities. Her fields of research are ethnography of religion, material religion, and philosophy in asian societies. She focuses on contemporary Buddhism in Chinese societies and Chinese philosophical and religious traditions (Buddhism, Daoism, and hermeneutics of Chinese philosophical traditions). Her ongoing Ph.D. research explores lay Buddhist modalities of practice in 21-century Chinese societies, looking at Buddhist materialisms, new ritual technologies and community buliding strategies. The project engages in aspects of material religion, ritual economy, and the dynamics of state and religion.